Mandingo history of liberia
The Perspective Atlanta, Georgia July 16, Growing up in this diverse community gave me a sense of understanding and appreciation for individuals who behaved and spoke different languages than mine.
I never felt out of place, except for the occasional conversations I overheard regarding the Congo and Mandingo people. Secondly, it was written to settle the issue whether Mandingo people are truly Liberian citizens. I believe if the true story of the Mandingo people had been told in the history of the Settlers wrongly called Liberian History ; we would not be having this fuss about whether Mandingoes are true Liberians.Modeh ani aish
In order to settle this issue, we need to answer the following questions: Who are the ethnic groups that make up Liberia? How did they get to be considered Liberians? In fact, who made that decision? For that matter, why is it that most Liberians tend to exclude the Mandingoes as a Liberian ethnic group? However, these questions are answered, the true history of Liberia tells us that the people other Liberians often referred to as foreigners were inhabitants of the area known as Liberia today, prior to the arrival of the Settlers from North America and the Caribbean.
The Mandingoes are closely related to the Bambara and are famous for having had one of the greatest empires of West Africa: the Malinke Empire of Mali in the 14th century that includes the cities of Timbuktu, Djenne, Gao and Agadez. These areas were not just the leading cities in the Sahara trade routes; they were centers of Islamic learning with major universities, cultural and historical centers. Why do most Liberians believe these ethnic groups are Liberians, and not the Mandingoes?
Presently they can be found in Western Liberia but are also concentrated in Mekka Chiefdoms Lower Lofa County where there are Kpelle speaking people and in Northern Lofa, where there are Loma speaking as well. A larger concentration of Mandingoes is found in Nimba County where they face their greatest opposition. I always felt it was wrong to have named political subdivisions counties after an ethnic group, i. According to West African history, the Mandingoes travelled far and wide across the Sahara and throughout West Africa seeking commercial opportunities.
During the early stage of the formation of the Liberian state, the Mandingoes had several bitter encounters with the Americo-Liberians over commerce; a monopoly the Americo-Liberians held along the coastal areas of Liberia. The Americo-Liberians picked similar palaver with the Klao Kru fishermen who traded with European commercial ships on the ocean. At that time, in the Liberian state, indigenous Africans were not considered citizens; yet the government wanted them to pay port duties on the goods they received from European ships anchored on the high sea.
These indigenous Africans refused to pay port duties because there were no ports in the area. Fights broke out over this issue. The African inhabitants felt that they were not obligated to pay taxes or custom duties to a government that had no legal jurisdiction over them.
This policy and related abusive policies directed at the Klaos Krus and Grebos, led to some of the serious uprisings in the southeastern areas of Liberia. There were other reasons besides the control of commerce for which the Mandingoes were not regarded as citizens of Liberia. First and foremost, was their religion -- Islam. The settlers who considered themselves Christians did not want any competition in converting the natives whom A.
Doris Banks Henries characterized as savages, primitive, belligerent people in her book, Civics for Liberian Schools Their education was limited to attending schools to learn the Koran in Arabic.
During this period, only males attended school. Due to their proud and prestigious history, the Mandingoes placed emphasis on their culture, customs and language. They got along well with some members of the Vai ethnic group on religious line.The Mandingo, also known as Malinke, Mandinka, Maninka, and Manding, is a tribe found primarily in West Africa, particularly in Gambia and Guinea, where it is the largest ethnic group.
The Mandingoes are linked with the ancient Central Saharan lineage, and are a branch of Mande-ethnic group.
As part of their tradition, the Mandingoes name a child seven days after birth and believe solely in arranged marriages.
After migrating to West Africa from the Niger River region, the Mandingo people contributed to their new found home through agricultural and labor-intensive economy. Most Mandingo men work in agriculture, trading rice, groundnuts, corn, and millets; others are butchers, tailors, drivers, carpenters, woodworkers, and work in animal husbandry. Most Mandingo women are housewives or work in the rice fields. The Mandingoes are primarily Muslims, although a few of them have converted to Christianity over the years.
Throughout the years, they have been discriminated against and treated as strangers in some West African countries, including Liberia. Many Liberians believe the misconception that the Mandingoes are not originally from Liberia, but rather, from Guinea.
Truth is, Mandingoes migrated from the Niger River region between A. D and A. The Mandingoes have a long and storied history that spans centuries.
Anna Sherman-Karto February 12, Comment. Facebook 0 Twitter Pinterest 0 0 Likes. Anna Sherman-Karto February 18, 8 Comments. Anna Sherman-Karto February 4, They speak the Manding languages in the Mande language family and a lingua franca in much of West Africa. Their largest urban center is Bamakothe capital of Mali, which is also inhabited by the closely related Bambara.
The Mandinka are the descendants of the Mali Empirewhich rose to power in the 13th century under the rule of king Sundiata Keitawho founded an empire that would go on to span a large part of West Africa.
They migrated west from the Niger River in search of better agricultural lands and more opportunities for conquest. Although widespread, the Mandinka constitute the largest ethnic group only in the countries of Mali, Guinea and The Gambia.
Their traditional society has featured socially stratified castes. Mandinka has been an oral societywhere mythologies, history and knowledge are verbally transmitted from one generation to the next. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, many Muslim and non-Muslim Mandinka people, along with numerous other African ethnic groups, were captured, enslaved and shipped to the Americas.
They intermixed with slaves and workers of other ethnicities, creating a Creole culture. The Mandinka people significantly influenced the African heritage of descended peoples now found in Brazilthe Southern United States and, to a lesser extent, the Caribbean.
Manding region is between southern Mali and the Guinea. This country was famous for the large number of animals and game that it sheltered, as well as its dense vegetation. A very popular hunting ground. The Camara or Kamara are expected to be the oldest family to have lived in Manden, after having left, due to the drought, Ouallataa region of Wagadou, in the south-east of present-day Mauritania.
A very large number of families that make up the Mandinka community were born in Manden.
Manding is the province from which the Mali Empire started, under the leadership of Sundiata Keita. The Manden were initially a part of many fragmented kingdoms that formed after the collapse of Ghana empire in the 11th century. This expansion was a part of creating a region of conquest, according to the oral tradition of the Mandinka people. This migration began in the later part of the 13th century. Another group of Mandinka people, under Faran Kamara — the son of the king of Tabou — expanded southeast of Mali, while a third group expanded with Fakoli Kourouma.
With the migration, many gold artisans and metal working Mandinka smiths settled along the coast and in the hilly Fouta Djallon and plateau areas of West Africa.The Mandingo tribe is a part of one of the largest ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.
Based primarily in West Africa, the tribe is represented today by approximately 11 million people. The history of the Mandingo tribe is as interesting as their culture and belief system. Did you know? The Kora is a traditional Mandingo musical instrument with 21 strings. Mandingoalso known as MalinkeMandinkaManinka or Manding is a West African tribe, supposed to have links with the ancient Central Saharan lineage. This focuses on the dominant place that the community occupies in West Africa.
Because their population is spread out in a large geographical area, one finds numerous dialectic variations of their language. Department of Agriculture, and shows a group of Mandingo women seated in a typical Mandingo settlement. The Mandingo people are supposed to be the descendants of the inhabitants of the Mali Empire, believed to have thrived from A.
Before A. What we know for sure, however, is that they were not independent prior to A.
HISTORY OF MANDINGO PEOPLE
The Mandingoes migrated towards the west from the Niger River, straight into the heartland of West Africa in the Senegambia region, where the Mali empire was established. The main reasons for this migration, as cited in their oral and written traditions, were the search for better agricultural lands and the desire for territorial expansion. Their ancestors battled the semi-nomadic Fula forces of the Kingdom of Fouta Djallon.
On arrival in West Africa, more than half of the tribe converted to Islam. They did not show much resistance while giving up their indigenous pantheist beliefs, and accepting the monotheistic Islamic belief structure.J8540 administration code
The need for additional farm lands, and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution were the root causes for the beginning of a period of slavery in the history of the Mandingoes. Quite interestingly, this slave trade was carried out on long-distance trade routes that were established by the Mandingoes themselves, and there were numerous Mandingo merchants involved in the transatlantic slave trade.
The irony was that the Mandingoes were sold as slaves to the Westerners by their own men. The hunt was for people who submitted easily and thus, from the 16th century to the 18th century, more than a third of the Mandingo population was shipped out of Africa to the Americas, the very reason why most of the African-American people in the United States today, are descendants of the Mandingo tribe. Mandingo culture includes rich and varied musical and spiritual traditions.
Though the impact of western education is negligible on the tribe, more than half of them can read the Arabic script. Their rural traditions include:. The settlements are a characteristic of:.Hell let loose gameplay no commentary
After their migration to West Africa, the Mandingoes enriched the region with surplus agricultural produce and a labor-intensive economy. Today, with the introduction of western education, quite a number of Mandingo tribesmen have risen through the ranks to lead their respective countries to independence from their colonial masters. Some of them have also achieved international repute. Bearing a powerful history of numerous centuries, the tribe continues to make greater strides and rise to prominence.
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I haven't finished my health journey yet, it's just getting started. Alana BeatonTo be honest I was freaking out a bit because I was like "crap I promised the instagram world before and after shots and I'm gonna look exactly the same. This is going to be embarrassing. No, it's not a massive difference but it was only the 14 day one, and I didn't alter my diet or do any additional exercise other than what I was doing before. I feel much less bloated and would definitely recommend this product. Now to get me some more.Depending on the particular variable, all of the data values may be represented, or you may group the values into categories first (e.
Rather, the value are grouped into ranges and the frequencies determined. Frequency distributions can be depicted in two ways, as a table or as a graph. Table 1 shows an age frequency distribution with five categories of age ranges defined. The same frequency distribution can be depicted in a graph as shown in Figure 1.
This type of graph is often referred to as a histogram or bar chart. Frequency distribution bar chart. Distributions may also be displayed using percentages. For example, you could use percentages to describe the:Central Tendency. The central tendency of a distribution is an estimate of the "center" of a distribution of values. There are three major types of estimates of central tendency:The Mean or average is probably the most commonly used method of describing central tendency. To compute the mean all you do is add up all the values and divide by the number of values.
For example, the mean or average quiz score is determined by summing all the scores and dividing by the number of students taking the exam. For example, consider the test score values:The Median is the score found at the exact middle of the set of values. One way to compute the median is to list all scores in numerical order, and then locate the score in the center of the sample.
Since both of these scores are 20, the median is 20. If the two middle scores had different values, you would have to interpolate to determine the median. The mode is the most frequently occurring value in the set of scores. To determine the mode, you might again order the scores as shown above, and then count each one. The most frequently occurring value is the mode.
In our example, the value 15 occurs three times and is the model. In some distributions there is more than one modal value.
For instance, in a bimodal distribution there are two values that occur most frequently. Notice that for the same set of 8 scores we got three different values -- 20. If the distribution is truly normal (i.A Mandingo Welcome Home Message
Dispersion refers to the spread of the values around the central tendency. There are two common measures of dispersion, the range and the standard deviation. The range is simply the highest value minus the lowest value. The Standard Deviation is a more accurate and detailed estimate of dispersion because an outlier can greatly exaggerate the range (as was true in this example where the single outlier value of 36 stands apart from the rest of the values.
The Standard Deviation shows the relation that set of scores has to the mean of the sample. Again lets take the set of scores:to compute the standard deviation, we first find the distance between each value and the mean. We know from above that the mean is 20. So, the differences from the mean are:15 - 20.Recognize the triggers that make you reach for your phone. If you are struggling with depression, stress, or anxiety, for example, your excessive smartphone use might be a way to self-soothe rocky moods.
Understand the difference between interacting in-person and online. Human beings are social creatures. The inner ear, face, and heart are wired together in the brain, so socially interacting with another person face-to-facemaking eye contact, responding to body language, listening, talkingcan make you feel calm, safe, and understood, and quickly put the brakes on stress.Zschochersche stra?e leipzig mobel
Interacting through text, email or messaging may feel important but it bypasses these nonverbal cues so can never have the same effect on your emotional well-being. Besides, online friends can't hug you when a crisis hits, visit you when you're sick, or celebrate a happy occasion with you. Strengthen your support network.
Set aside dedicated time each week for friends and family. If you are shy, there are ways to overcome social awkwardness and make lasting friends without relying on social media or the Internet.
To find people with similar interests, try reaching out to colleagues at work, joining a sports team or book club, enrolling in an education class, or volunteering for a good cause.
Build your coping skills. Perhaps tweeting, texting or blogging is your way of coping with stress or angry feelings. Or maybe you have trouble relating to others, or are excessively shy with people in real life and find it easier to communicate with people online. Building skills in these areas will help you weather the stresses and strains of daily life without relying on your smartphone.
Recognize any underlying problems that may support your compulsive behavior. Have you had problems with alcohol or drugs in the past. Does anything about your smartphone use remind you of how you used to drink or use drugs to numb or distract yourself. Recognize if you need to address treatment in these areas or return to group support meetings. Think of it more like going on a diet. Just as you still need to eat, you probably still need to use your phone for work, school or to stay in touch with friends.
Your goal should be to cut back to more healthy levels of use. Therapy can give you a tremendous boost in controlling smartphone and Internet use. Cognitive-behavioral therapy provides step-by-step ways to stop compulsive behaviors and change your perceptions about your smartphone.
Therapy can also help you learn healthier ways of coping with uncomfortable emotions, such as stress, anxiety, or depression. If your smartphone or Internet use is affecting your partner directly, as with excessive use of Internet pornography or online affairs, marriage counseling can help you work through these challenging issues. Marriage counseling can also help you reconnect with your partner if you have been using virtual worlds for most of your social needs.
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